Explain error control mechanism?

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14.Explain error control mechanism?

Error control mechanisms are techniques used in data communication and networking to ensure the reliable and accurate delivery of data from the sender to the receiver. These mechanisms are vital because data transmission and storage media are prone to errors, such as noise, interference, and hardware malfunctions. Error control mechanisms help detect and correct errors to prevent data corruption and improve the overall data reliability. There are two main categories of error control mechanisms: error detection and error correction.

error control mechanism
error control mechanism

1. Error Detection:

    Error detection techniques are used to identify whether errors have occurred during data transmission or storage. These methods can detect the presence of errors but do not have the capability to correct them. Some common error detection techniques include:

a. Parity Check: Parity check is a simple error detection method where an extra bit (parity bit) is added to the data. The total number of bits is made either even or odd. The receiver recalculates the parity bit and compares it with the received value. If they don't match, an error is detected.

b. Checksum: Checksum is a more robust error detection technique. It involves generating a sum or checksum value based on the data content. This value is appended to the data before transmission or storage. Upon receiving the data, the receiver recalculates the checksum and checks if it matches the received checksum. If not, an error is detected.

c. Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): CRC is a widely used error detection technique that utilizes polynomial division to generate a checksum. The data is divided by a predetermined polynomial to generate the CRC value, which is appended to the data. The receiver performs the same division and checks if the calculated CRC matches the received CRC.

2. Error Correction:

    Error correction techniques not only detect errors but also have the capability to correct them, making them more sophisticated than error detection methods. These techniques require additional redundancy information to enable error recovery. Some common error correction techniques include:

a. Hamming Code: Hamming code is an error-correcting code that adds extra parity bits to the data to form a specific pattern. These parity bits provide redundant information that allows the receiver to correct single-bit errors.

b. Reed-Solomon Code: Reed-Solomon codes are widely used in digital communication and data storage systems. These codes use mathematical algorithms to encode the data with redundancy, which enables the receiver to correct a certain number of errors. Reed-Solomon codes are robust and can correct both burst errors and random errors.

c. Forward Error Correction (FEC): FEC is a broad category of error correction techniques that add redundancy to the transmitted data in such a way that the receiver can recover the original information even if some errors occur. Examples of FEC codes include Viterbi, Turbo codes, and Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes.

Error control mechanisms are critical in ensuring the reliability and integrity of data during transmission and storage. The choice of which technique to use depends on the specific requirements of the application, the expected error rates, and the available resources for implementation.

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