List three types of transmission impairment?

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5.List three types of transmission impairment?

Transmission impairments are factors that can degrade the quality of a signal as it travels over a communication channel. Here are three types of transmission impairments:

types of transmission impairment
types of transmission impairment

  •     Attenuation: Attenuation refers to the loss of signal strength as it travels through a medium or communication channel. As the signal propagates over a distance, it experiences a decrease in amplitude, leading to a weaker signal at the receiving end. Attenuation is more pronounced in analog signals, but it can also affect digital signals, especially over long cable runs or fiber optic links.
  •     Noise: Noise is any unwanted electrical or electromagnetic interference that disrupts the original signal. It can be caused by external factors such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio frequency interference (RFI), crosstalk from neighboring cables, or internal factors like thermal noise and shot noise. Noise can introduce errors or distort the signal, leading to a reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and affecting the overall data transmission quality.
  •     Delay Distortion: Delay distortion, also known as delay spread or intersymbol interference (ISI), occurs when different components of a transmitted signal arrive at the receiver at different times. This phenomenon is common in long-distance communications, especially in wireless and optical communication systems. The delayed arrival of signal components can cause overlapping of symbols or bits, making it challenging to correctly decode the original signal at the receiver's end.


These transmission impairments can degrade the quality and reliability of data transmission in communication systems. To mitigate their effects, various techniques and technologies, such as signal amplification, error correction codes, equalization, and noise filtering, are used to enhance signal integrity and maintain reliable communication.

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