Explain about transmission technologies.

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28.Explain about transmission technologies.

Transmission technologies:

There are two types of transmission technology that are in widespread use. They are as follows:
1. Broadcast links.
2. Point-to-point links.

Broadcast networks have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network. Short messages, called packets in certain contexts, sent by any machine are received by all the others. An address field within the packet specifies the intended recipient.

Upon receiving a packet, a machine checks the address field. If the packet is intended for the receiving machine, that machine processes the packet; if the packet is intended for some other machine, it is just ignored.

As an analogy, consider someone standing at the end of a corridor with many rooms off it and shouting ''Watson, come here. I want you.'' Although the packet may actually be received(heard) by many people, only Watson responds. The others just ignore it. Another analogy is an airport announcement asking all flight 644 passengers to report to gate 12 for immediate boarding.

Broadcast systems generally also allow the possibility of addressing a packet to all destinations by using a special code in the address field. When a packet with this code is transmitted, it is received and processed by every machine on the network. This mode of operation is called broadcasting. Some broadcast systems also support transmission to a subset of the machines, something known as multicasting. One possible scheme is to reserve one bit to indicate multicasting. The remaining n - 1 address bits can hold a group number. Each machine can ''subscribe'' to any or all of the groups. When a packet is sent to a certain group, it is delivered to all machines subscribing to that group.

In contrast, point-to-point networks consist of many connections between individual pairs of Machines. To go from the source to the destination, a packet on this type of network may have to first visit one or more intermediate machines. Often multiple routes, of different lengths, are possible, so finding good ones is important in point-to-point networks. As a general rule (although there are many exceptions), smaller, geographically localized networks tend to use broadcasting, whereas larger networks usually are point-to-point. Point-to-point transmission with one sender and one receiver is sometimes called uncasing.

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