Explain about Peer-to-peer Communication.


27.Explain about Peer-to-peer Communication.


The peer-to-peer Communication is a type of person-to-person communication. In this form, individuals who form a loose group can communicate with others in the group, as shown in Fig. 14. Every person can, in principle, communicate with one or more other people; there is no fixed division into clients and servers.

Peer-to-peer communication really hit the big time around 2000 with a service called Napster, which at its peak had over 50 million music fans swapping music, in what was probably the biggest copyright infringement in all of recorded history. The idea was fairly simple. Members registered the music they had on their hard disks in a central database maintained on the Napster server. If a member wanted a song, he checked the database to see who had it and went directly there to get it. By not actually keeping any music on its machines, Napster argued that it was not infringing anyone's copyright. The courts did not agree and shut it down.

In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers

However, the next generation of peer-to-peer systems eliminates the central database by having each user maintain his own database locally, as well as providing a list of other nearby people who are members of the system.

A new user can then go to any existing member to see what he has and get a list of other members to inspect for more music and more names. This lookup process can be repeated indefinitely to build up a large local database of what is out there. It is an activity that would get tedious for people but is one at which computers excel.

Legal applications for peer-to-peer communication also exist. For example, fans sharing public domain music or sample tracks that new bands have released for publicity purposes, families sharing photos, movies, and genealogical information, and teenagers playing militia person on-line games. In fact, one of the most popular Internet applications of all, e-mail, is inherently peer-to-peer.

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